During European Renaissance and Enlightenment a huge change started within Jews. A movement called Haskalah during the 1700 wanted integration into the European society with much less restrictive laws from their faith and beliefs. Both scientific and secular education were added aside from the religion which were instilled in Jewish children. This allowed for interest in Jews which in turn revived studies of Hebrew and Jewish history as a whole.
Haskalah was the start of Conservative and reform movement within the Jewish community and this is also when Zionism seeds started forming. During the same time another movement appeared which exactly the opposite of the Haskalah were and they preached Hasidic Judaism. Rabbi Israel Ball Shem Tov were at the head of Hasidic Judaism during the 1700 and he gained popularity very fast as his approach was more mystical and exuberant.
If you look at the modern day divisions of Jewish faith and people you find that it is these two movements that formed Judaism today. The obviously did not stand still either while these two movements formed and the changing world affected the Jews. Persecution continued and grew such as the hundreds of thousands killed during the 18 century and continued in the 19th century.
When Napoleon allowed Jews to leave the European ghettos they were subjected to and gave them equality they also migrated to other parts of the world like United Sates. In other communities they continued to create other movements which are free from Europe’s restrictions.
Only in the middle Ages things changed again when Jews were forbidden to practice their own religion in the eastern Roman Empire. During thi9s time they fled to Tatars and Slavs as well as on the Black Sea’s Northern Shores. For the Jews living in the Western Roman Empire no Jews were troubled however simple acts like intercourse with a Jew when you were a believer were strictly forbidden and the bridge continue to grow between the Church and Jews.